Law is a system of rules that govern a state. It is a written code that highlights the dos and the don’ts in a nation. Law plays a pivotal role in necessitating the maintenance of social order, dispute resolution, and retribution of those who perpetrate acts that are against the law. It is enforced by social and government institutions.
Criminal law/ criminal justice
Criminal law is a body that identifies crime, runs the trial process, judges and punishes those found guilty of perpetrating criminal acts. There are two types of criminal acts; misdemeanor and felonies. A misdemeanor is a minor offense such as minor theft. People who are charged with a misdemeanor are imprisoned for less than a year in most nations. Felonies are major crimes such as rape and robbery with violence. In most states in the US, those charged with a felony are imprisoned for more than one year.
Tort law is a section of rules that govern civil suits. It includes matters such as theft, assault defamation and false imprisonment. In most cases, tort law seeks to recover money or damages rather than punishment of those found guilty. Some of the forms of compensation include payment of medical bills and compensation for pain and suffering. Conflicts based on contracts are exempted from tort law.
International law is the policies and rules that govern nations. It is also known as the law of nations. These are regulations and standards that govern relations between countries. They are either sourced from treaties or widely accepted practices. International law plays an essential role in promoting peace, security, economic and social development. The international convention for the suppressing of financing and terrorism is an example of international law formulated by the United Nations.
Property law is a section of rules and policies that govern and solve disputes on matters of ownership, use, and transfer of property. Property is material possession owned by an individual, group or the government. There are two types of properties personal and real property. The real property comprises of land and buildings. In the USA one must have a title deed to claim ownership of land. Rental agreements and written leases are also important between landlords and tenants. In New York, California, New Jersey, and Washington DC. There are rent control ordinances. However, in other states, the rent rate is based on an agreement between the tenant and the landlord. In the US, if one is found guilty of damaging personal or real property worth more than $100 he is subjected to a fine of $250 000 or 10 years imprisonment. If he damages goods worth less than $100 he is imprisoned for one year or pay a fine worth $100 000 or both.
It is a section of the law that governs companies. It outlines the rules and regulations of registration, organization, and processes of doing business. In the UK there are several rules that every company should adhere to. Every company should be registered under one of the company corporate structure. That is it should either be a private company or corporate limited. Some documents such as a memorandum of association should be presented during company registration. Also, each company should have an approved audit firm that audits its financial accounts after every financial year.
Energy law is an area of the law that regulates the energy sector. It includes both renewable and non-renewable energy. Energy law regulates the creation, production, transportation, and selling of energy. It also regulates taxation. For example, the US, Energy act 2005 states that those who produce clean energy should get a loan guarantee and tax incentives.