IPv4 and IPv6

IPv4 and IPv6
Internet protocol enhances the sending of data from one computer to the other through the internet through the different protocol versions that have been consistently improved. There are two internet protocol versions, IP version 4 (IPv4) and IP version 6 (IPv6), that have specific differences, advantages, and disadvantages related to their operations. The transformation of the IP version 4 (IPv4) to IP version 6 (IPv6) has resulted in notable differences in sending data from one computer to another (Durdagi and Buldu, 2010). Additionally, the differences have resulted in the changes in advantages and disadvantages. The different internet protocols have differences in features that contribute to their differences in operations and results. The transformation of IPv4 to IPv6 is directed towards enhancing effectiveness and efficiency in sending data from one computer to the other by adopting advanced differences. The IPv4 and IPv6 are internet protocols to enhance the passage of data from one computer to the other, and they have differences, advantages, and disadvantages in the sending of data from one section to another.
Differences between IPv4 and IPv6
There are notable differences between the IPv4 and IPv6 occasioned by the differences in their specific features. In this regard, the differences can be established from mobile devices’ compatibility (Ali, 2012). The IPv4 addresses the adoption of the dot-decimal notations that make the version less compatible for the mobile networks. On the other hand, the IPv6 addresses adopting hexadecimal colon-separated notations that make them better suited to handle mobile networks. Therefore, IPv6 enhances better mobile network connectivity as compared to IPv4.
The IPv4 and IPv6 can be differentiated from their mapping operations and effectiveness. The IPv4 uses resolution protocol in mapping to the MAC addresses, while the IPv6 uses the neighbor discovery protocol in mapping the MAC addresses (Ali, 2012). This fact makes IPv6 to map addresses with certainty and clarity as compared to IPv4.
The IPv4 and IPv6 differ from the mode of connection to the dynamic host configuration server (Ali, 2012). In this regard, IPv4 connection to a network, clients is achieved through approaching the Dynamic Host configuration servers. In contrast, in the case of IPv6, the clients are offered permanent addresses, and they are not required to contact any particular server since they are already permanently placed.
The IPv4 and IPv6 have differences in internet protocol security terms and conditions. The internet security protocols assure the users of security and integrity in the transmission of data over a network connection. The security protocols determine the processes and methodology to secure network data from illegitimate intentions to review or extract the data’s contents (Golkar, Dreibholz, and Kvalbein, 2014). In this regard, the IPv4 makes the use of internet protocol security optional while the IPv6 makes the security protocols mandatory for the users, thus upholding high security and privacy levels.
The internet protocol versions can be differentiated by the presence or absence of optional fields (Golkar, Dreibholz, and Kvalbein, 2014). The IPv4 has different optional fields tasked with different responsibilities, such as filtering different protocols using extended access lists, while the IPv6 lacks the optional field but instead has extension headers.
The IPv4 and IPv6 use different local subnet group management in identifying devices on a network using an addressing system (Golkar, Dreibholz, and Kvalbein, 2014). The IPv4 uses the Internet Group Management Protocol or the GMP, while the IPv6 uses the multicast listener Discovery or the MLD to locate devices on the internet.
The IPv4 and IPv6 can be differentiated for their differences in mapping IP addresses to Media Access Control (MAC) or accessing physical addresses of computers on the network (El Khadiri et al., 2018). The IPv4 uses the broadcasting ARP to enhance IP to MAC resolution, while the IPv6 uses the multicast neighbor solicitation to achieve the desires resolution.
The IPv4 and IPv6 use different approaches in the configuration of addressees. The address configuration ensures that windows configure the internet protocol parameters allowing the device to receive and send IP packets (El Khadiri et al., 2018). The IPv4 address configuration is done manually or through DHCP while the configuration under the IPv4 stateless address auto-configuration using the internet control message protocol or DHCP6 is used.
IPv4 and IPv6 are differentiated from the DNS Records. The DNS records provide important information on the domain or hostname, especially the current IP addresses (El Khadiri et al., 2018). In this regard, the DNS records under IPv4 are in the form of Address (A), while the record address for DNS records is (AAAA).
The packet header handling for the packet flow marks differences for IPv4 and IPv6.In this case, under the IPv4, the packet flow for QoS handling is not identified, including the checksum options (Shiranzaei and Khan, 2015). On the other hand, under IPv6, the packet flow for QoS handling is specified.
The packet fragmentation can be used in differentiating IPv4 and IPv6. Packet fragmentation takes the breaking of internet protocol into smaller parts to effectively and efficiently pass through a link (Shiranzaei and Khan, 2015). In IPv4, packet fragmentation is done through forwarding and sending of routes, while in IPv6, fragmentation is implemented by the sender. The minimum packet size for IPv4 is 576 bytes, while the minimum packet size for IPv6 is 1208 bytes.
The security under the IPv4 and the IPv6 varies based on the implementation of security protocols (Shiranzaei and Khan, 2015). The security under IPv4 is dependent on the security applications used in safeguarding internet security and privacy. On the other hand, IPv6 has its security protocol referred to as IPsec. Therefore, the security and privacy under the two protocols are maintained differently.
Additionally, the internet protocol can be differentiated through the Virtual Length Subnet Mask Support (Shiranzaei and Khan, 2015). The Virtual Length Subnet Mask Support enables sub-netting of the internet protocol to relieve network congestion and improve the efficiency of utilizing a relatively small network. The IPv4 Virtual Length Subnet Mask Support has supports added, while that of the IPv6 is not inclusive of the support.
Advantages and disadvantages of the IPv4 and IPv6
IPv4 advantages
IPv4 has different advantages and disadvantages in enhancing data transmission from one computer or device to another. In this regard, the IPv4 is encrypt enabled. The transmission of data and communication in public mediums is at risk of attack; thus, there is a necessity to adopt data encryption to improve privacy (Hakim, Aharaa, and Ismail, 2014).IPv4 takes security measures to encrypt data in the address packets; thus, privacy and security are effectively maintained.
The IPv4 internet protocol is highly flexible as occasioned by the addresses being effectively combined. The combination of addresses has made the routing efficient (Hakim, Aharaa, and Ismail, 2014). In this regard, organizations and businesses have adopted multicast in their data communications. This approach ensures that communication is attained with certainty.
The IPv4 enhances increased device connectivity where the different types and forms of devices across a large network can be effectively connected (Hakim, Aharaa, and Ismail, 2014). In addition to connection, identity verification can be attained for every device connected. Therefore, IPv4 offers improved and enhanced connectivity and security for different devices.
The IPv4 takes great measures to ensure that data packets are delivered to the hosts with certainty, thus improving communication and interactions (Hakim, Aharaa, and Ismail, 2014). The effective and efficient data delivery under the IPv4 hires Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). Therefore, IPv4 guarantees the devilry of data and avoidance of data duplication.
Additionally, IPv4 ensures that there is effective system support. The IPv4 routing in the IPv4 protocol can be easily handled by the systems (Hakim, Aharaa, and Ismail, 2014). Therefore, IPv4 can be supported and utilized by major systems.
IPv4 Disadvantages
IPv4 has its share of disadvantages in their different operations. In this case, the configuration under the IPv4 is complex, thus making configurations difficult. The IPv4 requires manual or automatic configurations (Hossain and Rahman, 2013). The manual configuration is done through the Dynamic Host Configurations Protocol (DHCP). The DHCP is complex since separate management needs to be done for its infrastructure.
The security under the IPv4 is not effectively guaranteed to the users. The development of the IPv4 was not meant to prevent threats exposed to the system (Hossain and Rahman, 2013). In this regard, the protocol needs to adopt the IPsec to enable network security to IPv4 by specifying the internet’s use. The security issue arises because IPsec is not in-built, and its implementation is optional, thus exposing the data to risk, threats, and attacks.
The IPv4 presents mobility challenges to organizations and businesses. The IPv4 contains the specifications for mobility, but they are considered inefficient (Hossain and Rahman, 2013)t. The inefficiency arises since IPv4 has its infrastructure that cannot be moved from place to place. Therefore, IPv4 mobility nodes are inefficient.
The access space faces challenges occasioned by the depletion of public address. The depletion of public address arises due to the initial address class allocation practices (Hossain and Rahman, 2013). The address space scarcity is eliminated through the process of Network Address Translation (NAT). In NAT, one single public IPv4 address is shared between different privately addressed computers, thus limiting the access spacers.
Additionally, IPv4 faces geographical restrictions such that it can be used in some countries and not others. The US is known for creating the internet; thus, it is used in the processing and distribution of IP addresses (Hossain and Rahman, 2013). Most addresses are reserved in the US, thus limiting users in other nations. Therefore, the geographical limitation is a challenge associated with IPv4.
IPv6 Advantages
The IPv6 has its share of challenges in enhancing the transmission of data from one computer to another. The design of t5he IPv6 provides a large address space (Doshi et al., 2012). The space left to address the end-user prefixes and the network addressing under the IPv6 is twice the length of the network and host components of the IPv4 address. Therefore, the extensive space ensures that the hierarchical address can be accommodated.
The IPv6 provides a virtually unlimited host address for every prefix available. The IPv6 means that there are no sub-netting word issues; thus, with the standard access prefix length of /64, a single prefix can handle far more hosts than one would ever wish (Doshi et al., 2012). Therefore, the IPv6 contains an unlimited Host Address for the available prefixes.
IPv6 presents efficient routing for the different available devices. The IPv6 limits the expansion of routing tables and makes them more efficient through permitting hierarchical address allocation (Doshi et al., 2012). The route aggregation across the internet is facilitated. The allocation of the path uses the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for the different protocols.
The IPv6 uses multi-routing that is enabled by the multicast addressing that is expanded over the internet and simplifies the delivery process by offering additional optimization (Doshi et al., 2012). Multi routing ensures that a device is highly mobile and covers the configuration aspects in designing the protocol. Moreover, multi routing ensures that there is an end to end connectivity that enhances error detection through the provision of transport layers.
Additionally, IPv6 supports directed local addresses or broadcast, thus enhancing in-depth packet flows. In this regard, IPv6 ensures an efficient flow of data between different multimedia streams (Doshi et al., 2012). The IPv6 provides an extra field named flow label that recognized packets belonging to the same flow.
IPv6 disadvantages
IPv6 has its share of disadvantages in their different operations. In this, the IPv6 faces system issues that constrain operations. In this case, the IPv6 routing must be enabled to the system that is run on. When data is entered manually, a long IP address must be typed (Tomar, Mishra, and Das, 2017). In this regard, the addresses have to be remembered since most IP addresses are relatively long, involving many letters and numbers. Therefore, the long IP addresses and specificity of the system constrain operations.
The IPv4 is complex in the network topology drawing. The long length in the IPv6 makes it complicated to fit prefixes (Tomar, Mishra, and Das, 2017). The long length makes it impossible to lay on the topology drawing compared to the case of IPv4 with short IP addresses.
Additionally, local networking faces challenges when confusion arises in the manual entry of new IP addresses (Tomar, Mishra, and Das, 2017). Manual entry of IP addresses is complicated since local network Management involves assigning IP addresses to specific devices.