Cybersecurity – The Sequence Alignment Map (SAM)


The Sequence Alignment Map (SAM) can be described as a file format that is used to save aligned information against the reference sequences. It begins with a section of the header and thereafter followed by information on alignment, for each one of the available reads (Ewaida, 2013).
LM hash is a technique for the storage of passwords in a windows operating system. It is defined by a password hashing function used by Microsoft LAN manager. NT hash is a technique for the storage of passwords before they can be stored in the SAM database. Whenever users log in and enter a password, it is the NT hash that compares it with the correct one with the SAM (Ewaida, 2013). If they match, it is then authenticated.
Password cracking is the process used to recover passwords. There are currently several passwords cracking methods that are currently in use. First, Brutus is a remote tool used to crack online passwords. It is freely available and supports basic authentication in HTTP and the POP3, Telenet, and various types of IMAP. Secondly, Cain and Abel’s tool is used to crack passwords on windows systems (Dalziel, 2020). It can be used as a sniffer to crack passwords using dictionary attacks, brute force, and decoding of scrambled passwords, among others. Thirdly, John the Ripper is also an open-source tool that is used to crack passwords in Linux, Mac, and Unix systems. It is also used in windows systems. John, the Ripper tool can detect passwords that are generally weak. Fourth, THC Hydra is one of the fastest tools for cracking passwords (Dalziel, 2020). It can easily be downloaded and is available for Windows, Solaris, and Linux systems.

Ewaida, B. (2013). Pass-the-hash attacks: Tools and mitigation. Retrieved from:
Dalziel, H. (2020, April 27). Password hacking tools & software. Retrieved from