Law is a system of rules that govern a state. It is a written code that highlights the dos and the don’ts in a nation. Law plays a pivotal role in necessitating the maintenance of social order, dispute resolution, and retribution of those who perpetrate acts that are against the law. It is enforced by social and government institutions.
Criminal law/ criminal justice
Criminal law is a body that identifies crime, runs the trial process, judges and punishes those found guilty of perpetrating criminal acts. There are two types of criminal acts; misdemeanor and felonies. A misdemeanor is a minor offense such as minor theft. People who are charged with a misdemeanor are imprisoned for less than a year in most nations. Felonies are major crimes such as rape and robbery with violence. In most states in the US, those charged with a felony are imprisoned for more than one year.
Tort law is a section of rules that govern civil suits. It includes matters such as theft, assault defamation and false imprisonment. In most cases, tort law seeks to recover money or damages rather than punishment of those found guilty. Some of the forms of compensation include payment of medical bills and compensation for pain and suffering. Conflicts based on contracts are exempted from tort law research report.
International law is the policies and rules that govern nations. It is also known as the law of nations. These are regulations and standards that govern relations between countries. They are either sourced from treaties or widely accepted practices. International law plays an essential role in promoting peace, security, economic and social development. The international convention for the suppressing of financing and terrorism is an example of international law formulated by the United Nations.
Property law is a section of rules and policies that govern and solve disputes on matters of ownership, use, and transfer of property. Property is material possession owned by an individual, group or the government. There are two types of properties personal and real property. The real property comprises of land and buildings. In the USA one must have a title deed to claim ownership of land. Rental agreements and written leases are also important between landlords and tenants. In New York, California, New Jersey, and Washington DC. There are rent control ordinances. However, in other states, the rent rate is based on an agreement between the tenant and the landlord. In the US, if one is found guilty of damaging personal or real property worth more than $100 he is subjected to a fine of $250 000 or 10 years imprisonment. If he damages goods worth less than $100 he is imprisoned for one year or pay a fine worth $100 000 or both.
It is a section of the law that governs companies. It outlines the rules and regulations of registration, organization, and processes of doing business. In the UK there are several rules that every company should adhere to. Every company should be registered under one of the company corporate structure. That is it should either be a private company or corporate limited. Some documents such as a memorandum of association should be presented during company registration. Also, each company should have an approved audit firm that audits its financial accounts after every financial year.
Energy law is an area of the law that regulates the energy sector. It includes both renewable and non-renewable energy. Energy law regulates the creation, production, transportation, and selling of energy. It also regulates taxation. For example, the US, Energy act 2005 states that those who produce clean energy should get a loan guarantee and tax incentives.
Compare criminology and criminal justice
For anyone looking to pursue a career in the field of criminal justice, understanding the difference between criminology and criminal justice is important. From a general view, the two fields may appear similar. But while there is a significant overlap between criminology and criminal justice, they are also two totally distinct fields.
So, how does criminology differ from criminal justice?
Educational course work
Criminology is the study of crimes. Criminology programs mainly focus on behavior, development, analytical skills, and the general background of the criminals. These programs primarily focus on the study of various aspects of crimes such as the causes, impacts, and preventive measures of crime. Most criminology courses require at least a bachelor’s degree and even higher qualifications for those interested in advancing their careers. Criminology is more theoretical and involves collecting and analyzing vast amounts of data.
Criminal justice, on the other hand, focuses on law enforcement in the real world. Criminal justice involves the apprehension, prosecution of lawbreakers, correctional facilities through an established court system. Criminal justice is basically the application of criminology, where the theoretical coursework learned by criminologists is applied in the real world through criminal justice.
When it comes to employment, the two fields tend to intersect because some career paths are open to people who have pursued degrees in either field. However, by pursuing a degree in criminal justice, you are more likely to work in law enforcement crime detection, arresting, apprehension, and prosecution of criminals and in corrections. This can include occupations such as police officers, correctional officers, deputy sheriff, immigration officer, park ranger, game warden, CIA agents, court clerk, probation/parole officer, among others. Some criminal justice majors can pursue law to become prosecutors, public defenders, and criminal defense attorneys. Criminology, in comparison, is the holistic and in-depth study of crime and often opens job opportunities in becoming criminal psychologists, private investigators, and rehabilitation planners.
As we can see, criminology and criminal justice have two separate focuses. Criminology is more focused on the sociology of criminals. Criminology Writing explores the behaviors of criminals, the causality, impacts, and the efficacy of punishment and rehabilitation programs. Criminal justice is more about the structure and organization of the justice system. Understating these vital differences will help you decide which one is right for you. While the two cover a great deal of the same ground, knowing exactly how you want to serve the community will help you decide which path will help you achieve your goals.